Manufacturing (Resistant Materials)

Methods of Production







Teachers notes lesson 1/2


Introduction

I intend to write these six lessons for Key Stage 4 'Resistant Materials' course. The lessons are flexible and some aspects may be used for 'As and A2 level Product Design'' and 'G.N.V.Q Manufacturing'.
The lessons are to be used to support the (DMA) tasks that go on in the classroom. They provide the content and theory knowledge that is required to support the practical activities.

The lessons are concerned with various types of manufacturing systems from mass production through to prototyping. The following manufacturing techniques are covered in the lessons:

1. Mass Production, Prototyping, Batch Production, Early Mass Production, Contemporary Mass Production and Continuous Flow Production.
2. Injection Moulding with examples of classic products.
3. Compression Moulding.
4. Rotational Moulding/ Spin Moulding.
5. Vacuum Forming.
6. Blow Moulding.

Each lesson includes the following:

1. Images and notes which explain the process.
2. Question concerning the process and answers provided.
3. One or more linked Guardian articles.
4. Questions concerning the articles.

The purpose of the lessons is not only to cover the topic of manufacturing but also to examine contemporary designers, products and classic icons of the 20th century. The new ''As level and A2 level'' require the students to investigate various creative movements, contemporary designers and product analysis.
This process should begin at G.C.S.E.
In case there is any confusion over the article I have provided the date and header. It is suggested that certain aspects of the articles could be copied and pasted into the student's own personal disc space.
The lessons comply with both the new 'National Curriculum' and the examination board syllabus. Programmes of Study have been included. The context is for the 'N.E.A.B Resistant Materials Course 2000 and 2001'.

Andy Davies August 2000

Lesson 1

Where the unit fits in
The unit is 9B(ii) Designing for markets and unit 9E(ii) Ensuring quality production.

Pupils will gain knowledge and understanding that they need to carry out a DMA. They:
9B (ii)


1. Learn what is meant by 'One-off' and 'High-Volume Production'.
2. Find out about the main commercial manufacturing processes.
3. Learn that users often place a different value on hand-made products and products designed and produced in high volume.

9E (ii)


1. Learn how everyday products are manufactured in volume.
2. Find out about the main commercial manufacturing processes e.g. Injection Moulding.


Expectations


most pupils will:
1. Understand the differences between the various forms of manufacturing systems.
2. To appreciate that the type of production system chosen depends upon the nature of the product , the market user and the cost implications.
3. To understand how the production line system has evolved throughout the twentieth century.
4. Understand the type of process used will normally depend upon the volume of products required.
5. Understand the terms input, process and output within the context of manufacturing.
6. To understand the term Unit Costs in connection with volume of products and the type of manufacturing process.
7. Understand there is an economy of scale because of standardisation.
8. Understand the term 24/7 and relate this to the use of robotics in industry.


some of the pupils will not have made so much progress and will :
1. Understand the differences between the various forms of manufacturing systems.
2. To understand how the production line system has evolved throughout the twentieth century.
3. Understand the terms input, process and output within the context of manufacturing.


some pupils will have progressed further and will :
1. Understand the differences between the various forms of manufacturing systems.
2. To appreciate that the type of production system chosen depends upon the nature of the product , the market user and the cost implications.
3. To understand how the production line system has evolved throughout the twentieth century.
4. Understand the type of process used will normally depend upon the volume of products required.
5. Understand the terms input, process and output within the context of manufacturing.
6. To understand the term Unit Costs in connection with volume of products and the type of manufacturing process.
7. Understand there is an economy of scale because of standardisation.
8. Understand the term 24/7 and relate this to the use of robotics in industry.
9. Not only to be able to answer the questions at the start of the lesson on the pie chart but also to be able to examine the Guardian Archive articles and to answer the questions provided.



Prior learning


1. Pupils need to learn about batch production.
2. Learn that making identical parts in a batch is cost effective and requires accuracy.
3. Used jigs, templates and tools to help with volume production.
4. Use I.C.T to help develop designs for batches and volume. Example 2D design package linked to a C.N.C Milling machine.



Language for learning

1. One-off production
2. Batch production
3. Production Line production
4. Mass production
5. Production Cell production
6. Continuous production/Flow production
manufacturer, factory, quality assurance, quality control, computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacture, template, jig, profit, cost, product research, environment, input, process, output, volume, process.


Resources

The Guardian Archives and the articles provided to answer the questions.
Resources for the projects provided e.g. Car Scraper and Container are mentioned in the schemes of work.

The following areas are covered:

1. Input, Process and Output with regards to manufacturing.
2. Manufacturing sectors identified by the 'Confederation of British Industry' (C.B.I)
3. Question based upon Manufacturing Sectors.
4. One-Off Production/ job or customer production with a whole scheme of work for the classroom.
5. Batch Production again with a scheme of work provided for a possible class project.
6. Economy of scale and standardisation.
7. Early Mass Production (Line Production). Henry Ford and the model T.
8. Modern Mass Production / Flow or Continuous production.

Guardian Articles

9. The following Guardian articles have been used in connection with methods of manufacturing and contemporary product designers:

The Sabine Durrant interview: James Dyson
Don't call me an inventor
The man who brought us the bagless vacuum cleaner has a thing or two to get off his chest. Kitchen bins, for a start...
Monday February 28, 2000

http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,3968267,00.html

David Jones
British car designer who created the classic 1950s Bedford van
Jeremy Dixon
Wednesday April 26, 2000

http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4011841,00.html

Robert Welch
His clocks, cutlery and candlesticks helped to define 'contemporary' style
Fiona MacCarthy
Thursday March 23, 2000

http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,3977289,00.html

10. Questions are asked of the articles. They should be discussed in class and looked at for homework.

 

 

Timing
The lesson could arguably take many hours to discuss and answer the questions. If the projects are tackled they may take months to complete.

 

 


Lesson 2

Where the unit fits in
The unit is 9B(ii) Designing for markets and unit 9E(ii) Ensuring quality production.

Pupils will gain knowledge and understanding that they need to carry out a DMA. They:
9B (ii)

1. Find out about the main commercial manufacturing processes.
2. Learn that users often place a different value on hand-made products and products designed and produced in high volume.
3. Learn how manufactures generate and develop new ideas for products.

9E (ii)

1. Learn how everyday products are manufactured in volume.
2. Find out about the main commercial manufacturing processes.
3. Learn about Injection Moulding, moulds, moulding.
4. Quality Assurance Systems and Quality Control (correct use of moulds and injection mould making).

Expectations

most pupils will understand:
1. Injection moulding (explanation and diagrams)
2. plastics used in the process.
3. Moulds and Mouldings.
4. Dwell Time.
5. Archimedean Screw.
6. Sprue.
7.Quick Response Systems in Manufacturing.
8.In order to guarantee a quality moulding.
9.Unit costs.
10. Answer questions on Injection Moulding.
11. Plastics table/materials and examples.


some of the pupils will not have made so much progress and will :
1. Injection moulding (explanation and diagrams)
2. plastics used in the process.
3. Moulds and Mouldings.
4. Dwell Time.
5. Archimedean Screw.
6. Sprue.
7.Quick Response Systems in Manufacturing.
8.In order to guarantee a quality moulding.
9.Unit costs.
10. Only answer a limited amount of questions on Injection Moulding.
11. Only remember some of the more common plastics in the plastics table/materials and examples.


Some pupils will have progressed further and will understand:
1. Injection moulding (explanation and diagrams)
2. plastics used in the process.
3. Moulds and Mouldings.
4. Dwell Time.
5. Archimedean Screw.
6. Sprue.
7.Quick Response Systems in Manufacturing.
8.In order to guarantee a quality moulding.
9.Unit costs.
10. Questions on Injection Moulding.
11. Plastics table/materials and examples.

12. Examine examples of products that have been injection moulded. Classic icon the Robin Day 'Polyprop' chair and other examples and read the Guardian article provided.
13. Answer the questions on the Guardian Robin Day article:

Prior learning

1. Pupils need to learn about mass production.
2. Learn that making identical parts in a mass is cost effective and that for true mass production standardisation of parts is essential.
3. Pupils need to have completed a product analysis on the 'Polyprop' chair and experienced sitting in it.
4. Pupils need to have experienced or witnessed some form of injection moulding. Either small or large scale.
5. Have examined a variety of plastics.

Language for learning

dwell time - This is a period of time in which pressure is maintained. It prevents the plastic from re-entering the screw chamber.

Archimedean Screw - A device of ancient origin for raising water by means of a spiral in a tube.

sprue - A small hole in which the plastic begins to enter the mould.

durable - capable of lasting, long-lasting.

Quick change injection moulding techniques - A technique where a mould may be adapted or changed in order for a different shape mould to be created. Inserts are used.


Resources
1. The Guardian Archives and the articles provided to answer the questions.
Resources for the projects provided
2. If possible a 'Polyprop' chair.
3. Polypropylene.
4. School injection moulding machine.




Timing
The lesson could take one hour to complete. The article will take longer to read and the questions require careful consideration.